What is Diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus or diabetic is a non-communicable disease occurs due to increases the blood glucose level more than the regular amount due to some reason. When we take foods increases the blood sugar level. Then secretes the insulin from the pancreas and it converts glucose into glycogen and then deposits in the body parts like adipose tissue. If become irregular this process in somewhere, raise the glucose level and it badly affects the body. This condition may severe case or even life-threatening.
There is no cure for diabetes mellitus and can keep under control by a healthy life pattern. With the treatments and flowing good manners, you can live long in healthier. But lack of treatments and care you may lead to other serious health problems like kidney failure and vision impairments.
The blood glucose level in a healthy individual is when fasting; between 72 to 99 mg/dL (4.0 – 5.40mmol/L) and two hours after taking meals, up to 140mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L).
Types of Diabetes Mellitus
Prediabetes/ impaired fasting glucose/ impaired glucose tolerance/ borderline diabetes is a condition in which blood has a high amount of glucose level (more than it should be) but not high enough to diagnose as diabetes. In this type of diabetes, there are no symptoms shown and due to that, most people (about 90 %) don’t know they have prediabetes.
Some times you may feel thirst, pee a to, fatigue, blurred vision. In most time, this condition may occur before starting type II diabetes mellitus.
Taking a healthy diet, regular exercise, lose bodyweight, avoiding smoking will help to prevent/ reverse prediabetes. Furthermore, keep up your blood pressure and blood cholesterol level under control.
Type 1 diabetes / Juvenile diabetes
Juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes occurs because decreasing insulin production by the pancreas. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is an autoimmune disease which destroyed the beta cells (cells responsible to produce insulin hormone) in the pancreas by the human immune system. In general, the condition is more common in young people or children and is why it is referred to as juvenile diabetes.
Thirst, Hungry (even after taking meals), dry mouth, frequent urination, rapid weight loss are the common symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Blurred vision, fatigue, upset stomach, vomiting, mood changes also can be seen furthermore.
Cause of juvenile diabetes is not clear. But genetics and virus infections or other environmental factors may cause the condition.
There are no exact treatments also to cure juvenile diabetes. But there are researches ongoing to find a method to prevent further damages of the insulin production cells.
Insulin injection is the common method control the blood glucose level in these patients. Always these people have to be alert about the glucose level in their blood. Apart from insulin treatments, exercises and foods habits are very important.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type II diabetes mellitus is also a chronic lifelong disease. In this, there is a resistant occur by the cell wall for insulin hormone. Then it prevents the blood glucose to enter the cells. It causes increases glucose level in blood. If not, This disease occurs owing to doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.
The symptoms may not prominent if you don’t alert about it. So most people don’t know they are suffering from the disease. The symptoms are almost identical to type 1 diabetes mellitus. Thirsty, frequent pee, blurred vision, hunger, fatigue are the same as Juvenile diabetes. Other than that, tingling or numbness in hands or feet, wounds that not heal, Susceptibility to infection, darkened skin areas can be seen.
The cause of the disease is, though the pancreas produces insulin, the body can’t use it. So blood glucose level increases. There are many causes for this. The two or more causes may affect together to make this type of diabetes. Genes, overweight, excessive glucose production from the liver, metabolic syndromes, damages of beta cells and communications errors between cells are those causes.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus mostly affects people who more than 45 years old. If someone has a family history he also may at risk for diabetes. According to ethnicity, changes the risk of disease. African, Native, Asian Americans are the more vulnerable people among Americans. People with prediabetes, heart diseases, hypertension, Hyperlipidemia, depression also are at risk. Smoking, poor exercise and stress are some of the additional factors that affect diabetes.
Treatments of this type of diabetes mellitus are based on lifestyle changes and medications. Taking healthy foods, correct BMI, regular exercises and regular blood checks can be considered as life changes. There are a number of medications used to treat this disease. Some of them are Metformin, Insulin, Sulfonylureas, Thiazolidinediones, Thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors. Metformin usually uses as the first treatment of type II diabetes. It is a more trusted and fewer side effects medication. It diminishes the glucose level made by the liver and promotes the body to respond to insulin.
There are so many complications of this type of diabetes. It can damage many body organs. Atherosclerosis (blocked blood vessels) and angina are complications of this. It damages to heart and blood vessels. Kidney failure is a very dangerous, complicated problem that occurs due to type II. This is a cause of retinopathy (damages the tiny blood vessels of the eye). Neuropathy (absence of sensation on feet and sexual response). This can increase infections and ulcers cure slower. Most of these complications are serious health conditions.
Increasing the blood glucose level during pregnancy is known as Gestational Diabetes. The condition goes away after the delivery. But these women are at risk for type II diabetes. There are two cases of gestational diabetes such as class A1 and class A2. Though the class A1 can be managed by healthy habits like exercises and food patterns A2 type is treated by insulin injections or medications. However, controlling blood sugar level will help to keep the mother and baby healthy and prevents the complication of the delivery.
Gestational diabetes mellitus usually has no exact symptoms and can identify through routine investigations like Initial glucose challenge test, Follow-up glucose tolerance testing. Some times you may notice excessive thirst, frequent urination and unusual hunger.
The causes of gestational diabetes are not clear and not found by researches. But women with risk factors like obesity are vulnerable to the condition. There are different hormones affects to control blood sugar level. During the pregnancy, the placenta produces hormones and the increase the glucose level in the mother’s blood. When her pancreas can’t make an adequate amount of insulin hormone or their body couldn’t use insulin hormone properly they get gestational diabetes.
The treatments of gestational diabetes are the same as other types. But it is better to get alert about the blood glucose level. Keep your blood sugar level at the proper level (before a meal 95 mg/dL or less, one hour after a meal 140 mg/dL or less, two hours after a meal 120 mg/dL or less). Take healthy foods and do exercises according to t your nurse or doctor. Be active and follow good manners.
Preeclampsia is a complication of gestational diabetes. This increases hypertension and damages the other body organs like kidney and liver. This may harm to mother and the baby. Mothers with diabetes have to undergo cesarian delivery at most time. Additionally, these women are more prone to get type 2 diabetes in future and get gestational diabetes mellitus in next pregnancies.
Other Types of diabetes mellites
There are different causes for diabetes mellitus apart from we noticed earlier. 1% to 5% of diabetes patients are these types. The reason for these types of diabetes mellitus is increasing the glucose level because of different health problems. Diseases of the pancreas, some surgeries and infections are some examples.
Lifestyle changes can prevent or control these most types of Diabetes mellitus. There is no need to add additional pressure to your mind for it. Change up your mind and lifestyle in a healthy manner. Be happy. Simplify your life. For more details about health topics or any types of diabetes mellitus follow us helabeauty.info.