Complications of High Blood Pressure.

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Complications of high blood pressure.
The most serious complication of hypertension is heart problems.

Hypertension is a serious health condition that causes the diseases in heart, brain, kidney and other important body parts. High blood pressure increases the risk of heart problems, strokes and kidney failure. The bad thing is this condition can damage your body organs quietly before the symptoms appear. Because of this reason, hypertension called the “silent killer”. But the most serious complications of high blood pressure such as strokes, disabilities, heart attack normally occurs due to uncontrolled blood pressure. The medical treatments and life pattern modifications help you to back to normal pressure and reduce the risk of life-threatening complications.

Since it does not show any symptoms normally, it is important to measure blood pressure routinely. Your physician may tell you the risk factors or complications that you may have to face according to your condition. The possible complications of high blood pressure are,

01. Heart failure

Hypertensive heart disease is the heart problems that occur due to elevated blood pressure. Your heart can not work under overpressure and working under high pressure leads to different heart problems. Generally, hypertension influences heart muscles and arteries. Heart failure, coronary artery problems, heart muscle thickening are examples of heart-related complications of hypertension. The cause of most deaths of hypertension patients is serious heart problems.

Coronary artery damage

Elevated blood pressure increases the risk of coronary artery disease. High pressure puts extra force against the artery walls. When not controlled for a long time your blood pressure damage the arterial walls and they are prone to narrowing and plaque. This process named atherosclerosis. Atheroma (an unusual accumulation of a substance in the inner layer of an artery wall) makes a resistance within the arteries and decreases or completely block the bloodstream to the heart muscles. Angina (chest pain), arrhythmia (irregular heart rhythm) and myocardial infarction (heart attack) is the result of this condition. So coronary artery problems are very serious complications occur due to hypertension.

Enlarged left heart

Excessive pressure causes your heart to work hard to pump blood to other parts of your body. Blood is pumped to your body from the left ventricle. Because extra pressure has to be applied, the left ventricle becomes thicker than before. It may cause some serious conditions like heart failure or cardiac death.

Myocardial infraction

Plaque and narrowed arteries less the blood supply to the heart muscles and weaken the muscles. These can fully block the artery. It is a serious condition due to completely stop the blood supply to your heart. It stops or reduces the oxygen transport to cardiac muscles and then become inactive it.

02. Artery problems

The work of the arteries is the blood supply to the body organs with nutrients and oxygen. As above, high-pressure damage the artery wall and make narrowing and plaque. Then it disrupts the nutrition and oxygen transport to the body parts. As a result, there are different health problems occur.

Damaged artery walls

As well as coronary arteries, other arteries can be damaged by high pressure. Normally the arteries are elastic. But when blood flowing under high pressure, the inner cell lining of arteries is damaged and causes to deposit lipids on the damaged wall. Then decreases the elasticity and blood supply to the body organs.

Artery enlargement

The aneurysm is a condition which enlargement of artery wall on its weak point. It may be internal bleeding due to rupture. This may be a life-threatening according to place it occurs. There are no exact symptoms to identify it usually. The most common artery that undergoes this situation is the aorta.

03. Kidney Damage

Kidneys are one of the most important organs in your body. The kidneys are another organ that is severely damaged by high pressure. It filters excessive fluids and waste from your blood and eliminates them as urine. Control the body’s fluid equilibrium, and keep the appropriate amount of electrolytes are other vital processes doing by the kidneys. In that, blood in your body exchanges several times through the kidneys per day. It needs healthy vessels for those procedures. These are the kidney-related complications of high blood pressure.

Damaged glomeruli

Glomerulosclerosis is a type of kidney damage occur due to scars of glomeruli (the network of small blood vessels within the nephrons of kidneys). The glomeruli are the sections which filter the blood in your kidneys. This portion removes the extra fluids and waste from the blood and then eliminate as urine. But damaged glomeruli can’t do this work properly. Proteinuria (presence of excess proteins in the urine) is the result and finally leads to kidney failure.

Kidney failure

High pressure damage the blood vessels. When narrowing arteries around the kidneys less the blood supply to tissues and inactive it. Hypertension is considered as the second leading health problem of kidney failure.

04. Brain damage

If your brain is to function well, it needs a better blood supply. But hypertension reduces the blood supply to the brain and it causes several complications like,


Ministroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a type of stroke that lasts for several minutes. It also the same as other types of strokes but symptoms are short-time. If you experience numbness or weakness in one side of the body, visual problems in one or both eyes, difficulty speaking/walking, imbalance, dizziness, etc. Please consult a doctor. This condition is a warning sign of the full-blown stroke.


Blood carries the oxygens and nutrition that needs to the brain. But elevated pressure causes clot formation and blocking the arteries. It reduces or stops the oxygen and nutrition supply to your brain and it causes the brain cells to die. The stroke is an emergency which needs quick treatments to survive the patients’ lives. Immediate treatment is very important to reduce brain damage.

Dementia and cognitive impairment

Decreasing the blood supply to the brain causes vascular dementia. Stroke also reduce bloodstream and leads to vascular dementia. Loss of memory and understanding problems (with ageing) come with dementia and some times with high blood pressure.

05. Eye diseases

The eye is another body organ which makes complications by high blood pressure. There are a few types of damages due to hypertension.

Hypertensive retinopathy

Damage to the blood vessels in the retina is known as hypertensive retinopathy. The retina is a light-sensitive tissue located back of the eye. The damage of this part causes blurred vision or complete loss of vision. This can be prevented by controlling high blood pressure.

Optic neuropathy

Hypertension may lead to optic neuropathy the condition. It caused by the damage of the optic nerve and can lead to permanent blindness.


Hypertensive choroidopathy is a rare condition among young patient with acute hypertension. Poor vision or scars are possible symptoms.

06. Sexual problems

The sexual dysfunction is a complication of high blood pressure that is psychologically distressing. Though its effect not a life-threatening, it can be a nuisance to your mind. Hypertension limited the bloodstream to the penis and causes erectile problems. The satisfaction of your sexual life may go away due to erectile dysfunction. However, some say it doesn’t affect women’s sexual life, while others say it does. Decreasing the blood flow to the vaginal area due to hypertension may cause vaginal dryness, poor sexual desire and difficulty achieving orgasm.

Apart from the disease, medications (diuretics and beta-blockers) which give for hypertension may cause sexual problems.


These are the common and possible complications of high blood pressure. Controlled hypertension can reduce these serious and other health problems. So it is important to keep your blood pressure under the specific level. For more information about health topics, go health website.